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Introduction

Strong Force

In Knot Physics, a geometric theory of quarks results in asymptotic freedom, confinement, and gluons.

Background

The Standard Model


A representation of quarks and gluons in the standard model

In the Standard Model of physics, particles like protons and neutrons consist of quarks, which are bound together by the strong force. Quarks that are bound by the strong force obey properties known as asymptotic freedom and confinement.

In the Standard Model of physics, particles like protons and neutrons consist of quarks, which are bound together by the strong force. The force between quarks is a consequence of the exchange of gluons. Quarks that are bound by the strong force obey properties known as asymptotic freedom and confinement.

A representation of quarks and gluons in the standard model


Knot Physics uses geometry to describe how quarks bind to each other.

Quarks


Fermions are knots in spacetime.

In Knot Physics, the spacetime manifold is embedded in a larger space. The spacetime manifold can be knotted. Knots in spacetime are elementary fermions—for example, electrons and quarks.

More detail: The spacetime manifold is a 4-dimensional manifold embedded in a 6-dimensional Minkowski space. The constraints on the spacetime manifold allow it to pass through a singular state that produces a pair of topological defects. These topological defects are the fermions of Knot Physics, and we often refer to them as "knots." For more information, see Theory Summary.

Knot in the spacetime manifold


Quarks are linked knots.

Knots in spacetime can link to each other, and linked knots are quarks. For example, a proton consists of three linked knots.

More detail: Embeddings of the topological defects can link such that they cannot be separated from each other. This linking can only occur because spacetime is embedded in an n+2-dimensional space.

A proton is three linked knots


Strong Force


Linking allows asymptotic freedom.

One property of the strong force is asymptotic freedom: quarks that are close to each other do not exert much force on each other.

In Knot Physics, asymptotic freedom occurs because linked knots do not exert force on each other when they are closer to each other than the knot radius.



Linking causes confinement.

Another property of the strong force is confinement: quarks cannot be separated from each other.

In Knot Physics, linked knots cannot be separated.



Gluons are the force between linked knots.

The force-carrier boson of the strong force is called the gluon. The gluon is responsible for the force between quarks.

In Knot Physics, when linked knots are pulled away from each other, they are pulled back by the other linked knots. This pulling force performs the same function as gluons do in the Standard Model.



Summary


Fermions are knots in spacetime, and linked knots are quarks. Linked knots exhibit the characteristic behaviors of the strong force: asymptotic freedom, confinement, and gluons.


More detail: Quantum Chromodynamics

In Knot Physics, quantum chromodynamics is also a consequence of knot geometry. See Theory Summary: Strong Force.


Learn More


Branched spacetime manifold

Unifying Gravity and Quantum Mechanics

A branched spacetime manifold enables a unified description of gravity and quantum mechanics.

Linked knots

Strong Force

A geometric theory of quarks results in asymptotic freedom, confinement, and gluons.

Electromagnetic field of two knots

Electroweak

Electroweak unification is a consequence of including knot geometry in the description of the electromagnetic field.

Theory Summary


An overview of the entire theory, from simple assumptions about the spacetime manifold through particles, quantum mechanics, and forces

Branched embedded spacetime manifold