Introduction

# Strong Force

In Knot Physics, a geometric theory of quarks results in asymptotic freedom, confinement, and gluons.

Background

## The Standard Model

In the Standard Model of physics, particles like protons and neutrons consist of quarks, which are bound together by the strong force. Quarks that are bound by the strong force obey properties known as asymptotic freedom and confinement.

In the Standard Model of physics, particles like protons and neutrons consist of quarks, which are bound together by the strong force. The force between quarks is a consequence of the exchange of gluons. Quarks that are bound by the strong force obey properties known as asymptotic freedom and confinement.

Knot Physics uses geometry to describe how quarks bind to each other.

## Quarks

Fermions are knots in spacetime.

In Knot Physics, the spacetime manifold is embedded in a larger space. The spacetime manifold can be knotted. Knots in spacetime are elementary fermions—for example, electrons and quarks.

More detail: The spacetime manifold is a 4-dimensional manifold embedded in a 6-dimensional Minkowski space. The constraints on the spacetime manifold allow it to pass through a singular state that produces a pair of topological defects. These topological defects are the fermions of Knot Physics, and we often refer to them as "knots." For more information, see Theory Summary.

Quarks are linked knots.

Knots in spacetime can link to each other, and linked knots are quarks. For example, a proton consists of three linked knots.

More detail: Embeddings of the topological defects can link such that they cannot be separated from each other. This linking can only occur because spacetime is embedded in an n+2-dimensional space.

## Strong Force

Linking allows asymptotic freedom.

One property of the strong force is asymptotic freedom: quarks that are close to
each other
do not exert much force on each other.

In Knot Physics, asymptotic freedom occurs because linked knots do not exert
force
on each other when they are closer to each other than the knot radius.

Linking causes confinement.

Another property of the strong force is confinement: quarks cannot be separated from
each
other.

In Knot Physics, linked knots cannot be separated.

Gluons are the force between linked knots.

The force-carrier boson of the strong force is called the gluon. The gluon is
responsible
for the force between quarks.

In Knot Physics, when linked knots are pulled away from each other, they are
pulled
back by the other linked knots. This pulling force performs the same function as
gluons do in the Standard Model.

## Summary

Fermions are knots in spacetime, and linked knots are quarks. Linked knots exhibit the characteristic behaviors of the strong force: asymptotic freedom, confinement, and gluons.

More detail: Quantum Chromodynamics

In Knot Physics, quantum chromodynamics is also a consequence of knot geometry. See Theory Summary: Strong Force.

## Learn More

### Strong Force

A geometric theory of quarks results in asymptotic freedom, confinement, and gluons.