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Introduction

Strong Force

In Knot Physics, a geometric theory of quarks results in asymptotic freedom, confinement, and gluons.

Background

Strong Force in the Standard Model

A representation of quarks and gluons in the standard model

In the Standard Model of physics, particles like protons and neutrons consist of quarks, which are bound together by the strong force. Quarks that are bound by the strong force obey properties known as asymptotic freedom and confinement.

A representation of quarks and gluons in the standard model

In the Standard Model of physics, particles like protons and neutrons consist of quarks, which are bound together by the strong force. The force between quarks is a consequence of the exchange of gluons. Quarks that are bound by the strong force obey properties known as asymptotic freedom and confinement.



Knot Physics

Knot Physics uses geometry to describe how quarks bind to each other.


A knot on the spacetime manifold

FERMIONS ARE KNOTS IN SPACETIME.

In Knot Physics, spacetime is inside of a larger space and can be knotted. Knots in spacetime are the elementary fermions—for example, quarks and electrons.

More detail: The spacetime manifold \(M\) is a 4-dimensional manifold embedded in a 6-dimensional Minkowski space. An n-dimensional manifold can be knotted if it is in an n+2-dimensional space. For more information on spacetime embedding and knots, see Unifying Gravity and Quantum Mechanics.



Three linked knots

QUARKS ARE LINKED KNOTS.

Knots in spacetime can link to each other, and linked knots are quarks. For example, a proton consists of three linked knots.

More detail: An elementary fermion is a topological defect with homeomorphism class \( \mathbb{R}^3 \# (S^1 \times P^2)\), referred to here as a knot. Embeddings of these topological defects can link such that they cannot be separated from each other. This linking can only occur because spacetime is embedded in an n+2-dimensional space.



LINKING ALLOWS ASYMPTOTIC FREEDOM.

One property of the strong force is asymptotic freedom: quarks that are close to each other do not exert much force on each other.

In Knot Physics, asymptotic freedom occurs because linked knots do not exert force on each other when they are closer to each other than the knot radius.



LINKING CAUSES CONFINEMENT.

Another property of the strong force is confinement: quarks cannot be separated from each other.

In Knot Physics, linked knots cannot be separated.



GLUONS ARE THE FORCE BETWEEN LINKED KNOTS.

The force-carrier boson of the strong force is called the gluon. The gluon is responsible for the force between quarks.

In Knot Physics, when linked knots are pulled away from each other, they are pulled back by the other linked knots. This pulling force performs the same function as gluons do in the Standard Model.



Summary

Fermions are knots in spacetime, and linked knots are quarks. Linking implies asymptotic freedom, confinement, and gluons -- the properties of strong force. Strong force is therefore a consequence of the linking of knots.


More detail

Calculation with QCD

In the Standard Model, the strong force is modeled by quantum chromodynamics (QCD). In Knot Physics, the color charge and SU(3) gauge group of QCD are incorporated as a method of describing the placement of linked knots within the particle. For more information, see “Physics on a Branched Knotted Spacetime Manifold” at Papers.


Learn More

Video Course

Gravity and Quantum Mechanics

The double slit experiment, virtual particles, and spacetime curvature are among the topics covered in this course.

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